Generally speaking, antifungal drugs can work in two ways: by directly killing fungal cells or by preventing fungal cells from growing and thriving. But how do they do this? Antifungal drugs target structures or functions that are necessary in fungal cells but not in human cells, so they can fight a fungal infection without damaging your body’s cells. Two structures that are commonly targeted are the fungal cell membrane and the fungal cell wall. Both of these structures surround and protect the fungal cell. When either one becomes compromised, the fungal cell can burst open and die.